Salam alaykum.

Salam alaikum. Below you would see research done by shia Nader Zaveri. We are quoting it from his blog without any edition. It’s extremely important that many shias today aren’t satisfied by fairy-tales which they can hear on their gathering during the years, and instead of it, they are trying to research.

Salaamun ‘Alaykum,

What do I mean by 3rd Testimony in Adhaan and Iqaamah? I am talking about the saying, “أشهد أن علي ولي الله” or any other variation that is said about Imaam ‘Alee (AS) during the adhaan.

The first thing I would like to mention is that the issue of the 3rd testimony in the Adhaan/Iqaamah was condemned by ALL major scholars before Al-Majlisi’s father (Muhammad Taqee Al-Majlsi) who died in the year 1080 AH (See: Al-Majlisi I, RawDah Al-Muttaqoon). Al-Majlisi backed up his father and said that doing this 3rd testimony in the adhaan / iqaamah is a great act.

So for 1000 years, this issue was either condemned, called a bid’ah, calling the people who do this action a form of ghullah (exaggerator), or simply hasn’t even been mentioned in their books(for it wasn’t important).

There are 0 (zero) SaHeeH hadeeth from Shee’ah books that says that it is permissible to add the 3rd testimony in Adhaan or Iqaamah. Or ANY hadeeth that says that it is mustahab (recommended), or anything that says “do it with the intention of it NOT being part of the adhaan/iqaamah”. None. Zero. Nada.

I would like to narrate a muwaththaq (reliable) hadeeth directly from Imaam Muhammad Al-Baaqir (AS) where he talks about how many parts / phrases are in the Adhaan.
عَلِيُّ بْنُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عِيسَى بْنِ عُبَيْدٍ عَنْ يُونُسَ عَنْ أَبَانِ بْنِ عُثْمَانَ عَنْ إِسْمَاعِيلَ الْجُعْفِيِّ قَالَ سَمِعْتُ أَبَا جَعْفَرٍ ع يَقُولُ الْأَذَانُ وَ الْإِقَامَةُ خَمْسَةٌ وَ ثَلَاثُونَ حَرْفاً فَعَدَّ ذَلِكَ بِيَدِهِ وَاحِداً وَاحِداً الْأَذَانَ ثَمَانِيَةَ عَشَرَ حَرْفاً وَ الْإِقَامَةَ سَبْعَةَ عَشَرَ حَرْفاً
He (AS) said: The Adhaan and the Iqaamah have 35 characters/parts, just check it by his hand one by one, the adhaan has 18 characters/parts and the Iqaamah has 17 characters/parts.”
Source:
· Al-Kaafi, Al-Kulaynee, vol. 3, pg. 302 – 303, hadeeth # 3
Grading:
· Al-Majlisi has said this hadeeth is Muwwaththaq (Reliable)
–> Mir’aat Al-’Uqool, vol. 15, pg. 82

Now if you were to add the 3rd testimony in the Adhaan & Iqaamah, the Adhaan would consist of 20 part and the Iqaamah would consist of19 parts. These two combined would make it 39 parts, and as you can see the Imaam (AS) never said anything about that.
Let us look to the major scholars of Shee’ah Islaam pre-Majlisis.

1.) Here is what Al-Sadooq (d. 381 AH) has said concerning the 3rd testimony. Here are his actual words.
هَذَا هُوَ الْأَذَانُ الصَّحِيحُ لَا يُزَادُ فِيهِ وَ لَا يُنْقَصُ مِنْهُ وَ الْمُفَوِّضَةُ لَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ قَدْ وَضَعُوا أَخْبَاراً وَ زَادُوا فِي الْأَذَانِ مُحَمَّدٌ وَ آلُ مُحَمَّدٍ خَيْرُ الْبَرِيَّةِ مَرَّتَيْنِ وَ فِي بَعْضِ رِوَايَاتِهِمْ بَعْدَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللَّهِ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ عَلِيّاً وَلِيُّ اللَّهِ مَرَّتَيْنِ وَ مِنْهُمْ مَنْ رَوَى بَدَلَ ذَلِكَ أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ عَلِيّاً أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ حَقّاً مَرَّتَيْنِ وَ لَا شَكَّ فِي أَنَّ عَلِيّاً وَلِيُّ اللَّهِ وَ أَنَّهُ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ حَقّاً وَ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً وَ آلَهُ صَلَوَاتُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِمْ خَيْرُ الْبَرِيَّةِ وَ لَكِنْ لَيْسَ ذَلِكَ فِي أَصْلِ الْأَذَانِ وَ إِنَّمَا ذَكَرْتُ ذَلِكَ لِيُعْرَفَ بِهَذِهِ الزِّيَادَةِ الْمُتَّهَمُونَ بِالتَّفْوِيضِ الْمُدَلِّسُونَ أَنْفُسَهُمْ فِي جُمْلَتِنَا
Translation: “This is the Authentic / Correct (SaHeeH) adhaan; nothing is to be added or subtracted from it. The mufawwidah’s (form of ghullah), may Allaah curse them, have fabricated traditions and have added to the adhaan مُحَمَّدٌ وَ آلُ مُحَمَّدٍ خَيْرُ الْبَرِيَّةِ (Muhammad and the family of Muhammad are the best of mankind) twice. In some of their traditions, after saying أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً رَسُولُ اللَّهِ (I bear witness that Muhammad is the Prophet of Allaah) (they add) أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ عَلِيّاً وَلِيُّ اللَّهِ (I bear witness that ‘Alee is the Walee of Allaah) twice. Among them there are others who narrate this أَشْهَدُ أَنَّ عَلِيّاً أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ (I bear witness that ‘Alee is the commander of the faithfull) twice. There is NO doubt that ‘Alee is the walee of God and that he is the true commander of the faithful and that Muhammad and his family, peace be upon them, are the best of creatures. However, that is not [part] of the original adhaan. I have mentioned this so that those who have been accused of concocting tafweed and have insulated themselves in our ranks should be known.”
Source:
1. Al-Sadooq, Man Laa YaHduruh Al-Faqeeh, vol. 1, pg. 290 – 291

2.) Here is what Al-Mufeed (d. 413 AH) had to say about the Adhaan. (he doesn’t even mention the 3rd testimony at all!)
و الأذان و الإقامة خمسة و ثلاثون فصلا الأذان ثمانية عشر فصلا و الإقامة سبعة عشر فصلا
Translation: “And the Adhaan & Iqaamah has 35 parts, the Adhaan has 18 parts and the Iqaamah has 17 parts”
Source:
1. Al-Mufeed, Al-Muqnee’ah, vol. 1, pg. 100

3a.) Here is what Al-Toosi (d. 460 AH) had to say about the 3rd testimony in the adhaan.
و أمّا ما روي في شواذّ الأخبار من قول: «أشهد انّ عليا وليّ اللّه و آل محمّد خير البريّة» فممّا لا يعمل عليه في الأذان و الإقامة. فمن عمل بها كان مخطئا
Translation: “The are some odd (shaadh) reports of saying أشهد انّ عليا وليّ اللّه and آل محمّد خير البريّة. You must do it in the Adhaan and Iqaamah. And whoever does this action is in mukhTi (error)”
Source:
1. Al-Toosi, Al-Nihaayah fee Mujarrad Al-Fiqh wa Al-Fataawaa, pg. 69

3b.) Here is another quote from Al-Toosi regarding the 3rd testimony in Adhaan.
أنه ليس من فضيلة الأذان و لإكمال فصوله
Translation: It is not from amongst the faDeelah (recommended parts) of Adhaan and it doesn’t make it more complete (Kaamil)
Source:
1. Al-Toosi, Al-MabsooT fee Fiqh Al-Imaamiyyah, vol. 1, pg. 99

4a.) Another source where Al-Muhaqqiq Al-Hillee (d. 767 AH) talks about the adhaan & iqaamah but doesn’t even mention the 3rd testimony
و الأذان على الأشهر ثمانية عشر فصلا التكبير أربع و الشهادة بالتوحيد ثم بالرسالة ثم يقول حي على الصلاة ثم حي على الفلاح ثم حي على خير العمل و التكبير بعده ثم التهليل كل فصل مرتان
Translation: The adhaan has 18 parts: Takbeer 4 times, Witnessing to Tawheed, (Witnessing) to the Prophethood, Hayya ‘Ala Salaah, Hayyah ‘Ala FlaaH, Hayyah ‘Ala Khayrul ‘Amal, Takbeer all of these have to be done twice.
Source:
1. Al-Muhaqqiq Al-Hillee, Sharaa-’i Al-Islaam Fee Masaa-il Al-Halaal wa Al-Haraam, vol. 1, pg. 65

4b.) Here is what Al-Muhaqqiq Al-Hillee had to say about anything added to the adhaan & iqaamah (he mentions the adhaan & iqaamah and the 3rd testimony is not there)
Chapter Title is الأذان ثمانية عشر، و الإقامة سبعة عشر (The Adhaan has 18 (parts), and the Iqaamah has 17 (parts)
و ما يقال من الزيادة عن ذلك بدعة
Translation: “And anything that is added to this (adhaan & iqaamah) is a bid’ah”
Source:
1. Al-Muhaqqiq Al-Hillee, Al-Mu’tabar fee sharH Al-MukhtaSar, pg. 141

5.) Here is what ‘Allaamah Hillee (d. 726 AH) has said about the 3rd testimony in the Adhaan and Iqaamah
و لا يجوز قول «إن عليا ولي اللَّه» و «آل محمد خير البرية» في فصول الآذان، لعدم مشروعيته
Translation: “And it is NOT permissible to say إن عليا ولي اللَّه and آل محمد خير البرية since there is no ruling for it in the sharee’ah”
Source:
1. ‘Allaamah Hilli, Nihaayah Al-aHkaam fee ma’rifah al-aHkaam, vol. 1, pg. 412

6.) Here is what Shaheed Al-Awwal (d. 786 AH) has said about the 3rd testimony in Adhaan.
وَ لَا يَجُوزُ اعْتِقَادُ شَرْعِيَّةِ غَيْرِ هَذِهِ فِي الْأَذَانِ وَ الْإِقَامَةِ كَالتَّشَهُّدِ بِالْوِلَايَةِ وَ أَنَّ مُحَمَّداً وَ آلَهِ خَيْرُ الْبَرِيَّةِ وَ إِنْ كَانَ الْوَاقِعُ كَذَلِكَ
Translation: “It is NOT permissible to believe in the legitimacy of Witnessing the Wilaayah of ‘Alee and “Muhammad wa Aalih Khayrul Bariyyah” in the adhaan and iqaamah, even though these events are factual!
Source:
1. Shaheed Al-Awwal, Al-Lum’ah Al-Dimashqiyyah, pg. 37

7a.) Here is what Shaheed Al-Thaanee (d. 966 AH) has said about 3rd testimony in Adhaan.
و لا يجوز اعتقاد شرعية غير هذه الفصول- في الأذان و الإقامة كالتشهد بالولاية لعلي ع و أن محمدا و آله خير البرية أو خير البشر- و إن كان الواقع كذلك فما كل واقع حقا يجوز إدخاله في العبادات الموظفة شرعا المحدودة من الله تعالى فيكون إدخال ذلك فيها بدعة و تشريعا كما لو زاد في الصلاة ركعة أو تشهدا أو نحو ذلك من العبادات و بالجملة فذلك من أحكام الإيمان لا من فصول الأذان
Translation: It is NOT permissible to believe in legitimacy of other parts in adhaan and iqaamah, like witnessing to wilaayah of ‘Alee and “muhammad wa aalihi khayrul bariyyah”. As not EVERY factual reality can be inserted into the legally prescribed rituals (‘ibaadaat), specified by the Allaah (SWT), since inserting theses things will be regarded as bi’dah and legislation, similar to addition of a rak’ah or tashahhud or alike things to the acts of worship (‘ibaadaat)”
Source:
1. Shaheed Al-Thaanee, Al-RawDah Al-Bahiyyah fee SharH Al-Lum’ah Al-Dimashqiyyah, vol. 1, pg. 70
2. Shaheed Al-Thaanee, Al-RawDah Al-Bahiyyah fee SharH Al-Lum’ah Al-Dimashqiyyah, vol. 1, pg. 573
3. Muhammad Jawaad Mughniyyah, Fiqh Al-Imaam Al-Saadiq, vol. 1, pg. 175

7b.) Another source for Shaheed Al-Thaanee talking about 3rd testimony in Adhaan & Iqaamah
و أمّا إضافة «أنّ عليّاً وليّ اللّه»، و «آل محمّد خير البريّة» و نحو ذلك فبدعة، و أخبارها موضوعة
Translation: “And addition (to the adhaan & iqaamah) of عليّاً وليّ اللّه and آل محمّد خير البريّة is a bid’ah and the narrations regarding it (3rd testimony) is mawDoo’ (fabricated).”
Source:
1. Shaheed Al-Thaanee, Al-RawDah Al-Jinaan fee sharH Irshaad Al-Adhhaan, vol. 2, pg. 646

8.) Here is what Al-Muqqadis Al-Ardabillee (d. 993 AH) has said regarding the 3rd testimony (he has said this after he quotes Al-Sadooq calling them MufawwiDas)
فينبغي اتباعه لأنه الحق، و لهذا يشنع على الثاني بالتغيير في الأذان الذي كان في زمانه صلى الله عليه و آله فلا ينبغي ارتكاب مثله مع التشنيع عليه
Rough Translation: Since the shee’ahs condemn the 2nd (‘Umar) for adding to the Adhaan that wasn’t during the time of the Prophet, it is improper for them to emulate such an act (by adding the 3rd testimony).
Source:
1. Al-Muqqadis Al-Ardabillee (d. 993 AH), Majma’ Al-Faa-idah wa Al-Burhaan fee SharH Irshaad Al-Adhhaan, vol. 2, pg. 181

Now, look at what a during the time of Al-Majlisi, after he said it is okay to put it in the Adhaan.

9.) Here is what Al-Muhaqqiq Al-Sabzawaaree (d. 1090 AH) had to say about the 3rd testimony in Adhaan.
و أمّا إضافة أنّ عليّا وليّ اللَّه و آل محمّد خير البريّة و أمثال ذلك فقد صرّح الأصحاب بكونها بدعة و إن كان حقّا صحيحا إذ الكلام في دخولها في الأذان و هو موقوف على التوقيف الشرعي و لم يثب
Translation: “And about adding the أنّ عليّا وليّ اللَّه and آل محمّد خير البريّة , the jurists have clearly stated that this is a bid’ah. And the statement is true. But adding it to the adhaan is dependent upon its divine ordainment. (al-tawqeef al-shar’ee)”
Source:
1. Al-Sabzawaareee (d. 1090), Dhakheerah Al-Ma’aad fee sharH Al-Irshaad, vol. 2, pg. 244
As you can see, our major scholars that came before the Al-Majlisis condemned this action.

Even Al-Khomeinee talks about the aHaadeeth that allude to the 3rd testimony in Adhaan and Iqaamah.
“In some Da’eef (untrustworthy / weak) narratives it is stated that after testifying to the Messengership in the adhan one is to say: “I testify that ‘Ali is waliyullah (Allah’s friend)” twice. In other narratives, one is to say: “I testify that ‘Ali is truly Amirul Mu’minin” twice. In some others, one is to say: “Muhammad and his progeny are the best of people”. Ash-Shaykh as-Saduq(may Allah have mercy upon him) took these narratives to be invented and he denied them. It is well known among the ‘ulama’ (may Allah be pleased with them) that these narratives are not reliable.”
Source:
· Khomeinee, Adaab Al-Salaah, Discourse 3, Ch. 4

But unfortunately, even after Al-Khomeinee admits there are no SaHeeH hadeeth about this,
he tries to present a hadeeth, the very same hadeeth that Al-Majlisi has used to add the 3rd
testimony in Adhaan. Here is the hadeeth.
و روى القاسم بن معاوية قال قلت لأبي عبد الله ع هؤلاء يروون حديثا في معراجهم أنه لما أسري برسول الله رأى على العرش مكتوبا لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله أبو بكر الصديق فقال سبحان الله غيروا كل شي‏ء حتى هذا قلت نعم قال إن الله عز و جل لما خلق العرش كتب عليه لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله علي أمير المؤمنين و لما خلق الله عز و جل الماء كتب في مجراه لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله علي أمير المؤمنين و لما خلق الله عز و جل الكرسي كتب على قوائمه لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله علي أمير المؤمنين و لما خلق الله عز و جل اللوح كتب فيه لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله علي أمير المؤمنين و لما خلق الله إسرافيل كتب على جبهته لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله علي أمير المؤمنين و لما خلق الله جبرئيل كتب على جناحيه لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله علي أمير المؤمنين و لما خلق الله عز و جل السماوات كتب في أكنافها لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله علي أمير المؤمنين و لما خلق الله عز و جل الأرضين كتب في أطباقها لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله علي أمير المؤمنين و لما خلق الله عز و جل الجبال كتب في رءوسها لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله علي أمير المؤمنين و لما خلق الله عز و جل الشمس كتب عليها لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله علي أمير المؤمنين و لما خلق الله عز و جل القمر كتب عليه لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله علي أمير المؤمنين و هو السواد الذي ترونه في القمر فإذا قال أحدكم لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله فليقل علي أمير المؤمنين
Translation: I said to Aboo ‘Abd Allaah (6th Imaam), that they (sunnees) trasmit a tradtion in their [books about] mi’raaj, that when the Prophet (SAWAS) was taken on the night of ascension he saw writing on the throne which read, “There is no God, but Allaah, Muhammad is the Prophet of God and Aboo Bakr is the truthful one.” Imaam Al-Saadiq (AS) said: “SubHaanallaah (Glory be to Allaah), they have changed EVERYTHING including this?” Al-Qaasim said: “Yes”, Imaam Saadiq (AS) said: “When Allaah (SWT), created the throne he wrote on it: “There is no god, but Allaah and Muhammad is the Prophet of Allaah and ‘Alee is Ameer Al-Mu-mineen……the tradtion goes on until Imaam Saadiq (AS) at the end says this…”Whenever one of you recites the Shahadatayn, say ‘Alee is Ameer Al-Mu’mineen.”
Source:
1. Al-Tabarasee, Al-Ihtijaaj, vol. 1, pg. 158
2. Al-Majlisi, Bihaar Al-Anwaar, vol. 27, ch. 10, pg. 1, hadeeth #1
3. Al-Majlisi, Bihaar Al-Anwaar, vol. 81, ch. 13, pg. 112, hadeeth #1

There are A LOT of things wrong with this hadeeth itself and the way it is used as a proof (for 3rd testimony):
1. This hadeeth is not found in any other book before Al-Tabarasee narrates it in his book (Al-Ihtijaaj).
2. There is no sanad (chain of narrators) that is accompanied with this hadeeth, just the primary narrator
3. The primary narrator is HIGHLY majhool (unknown)
a. There are 0 (zero) hadeeth from this specific narrator in our Kutub Al-Arba’ (Al-Kaafi, Al-Faqeeh, Tahdheeb & Al-IstibSaar) or Wasaa-il Al-Shee’ah
b. The ONLY hadeeth that is narrated from this narrator is this specific hadeeth

It is very unlikely that a person just appears and narrates a lengthy hadeeth like this and then disappears. Since this hadeeth is talking against the Sunnees and Aboo Bakr, it would seem that the companion had to be VERY close to the Imaam (AS), that he would trust him. Usually our Imaams (AS) would do taqiyyah (dissimulation), and only narrate such hadeeth with their close companions.

One thing to note, this hadeeth has NOTHING to do with Adhaan and Iqaamah. In order to “add” things into you ‘ibaadah, you must have tawqeef (divine ordainment), meaning there has to be a SaHeeH hadeeth from the Prophet (SAWAS) or the Imaams (AS) that allow this.
In conclusion, doing the 3rd testimony in the adhaan / iqaamah is reprehensible bid’ah (innovation), that must be stopped immediately. Doesn’t matter what “intention” you say it. A bid’ah is a bid’ah.

Wa ‘Alaykum Assalaam,