In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful
Assalaamu `alaykum waRahmatullahi Wabarakatoh
There are many conflicting narrations regarding Yazeed. Some narrations describe him as being addicted to dancing, wine and music.(Al Bidaya wan nihayyah 11/659 Marqazul buhooth wad diraasaat) He was also accused of legalizing adultery(WHICH MAY BE THE FABRICATIONS OF RAFIDAH). Some regard him responsible for the martyrdom of Hazrat Husain (R.A). Based on these narrations, some Ulama regarded it permissible to curse him and even passed the verdict of kufr on him.
There are however, other narrations that describe him as a pious and learned leader. He is also praised for his night prayers. He was very disheartened at the martyrdom of Husain (R.A) and he also cursed the killer. Based on these narrations, there are Ulama who hold him in great esteem.
A third group of Ulama prefer silence and hand over his matter to Allah. This is the view of the vast majority of Ulama including the (majority of the) Ulama of Deoband. (Aap ke masaail aur unka hal 1/171). EVEN THE IMAM OF BARELWIS AHMED RAZA KHAN HELD THE SAME VIEW THAT HE DOESNT CONSIDER YAZEED TO BE KAAFIR, ON THE OTHER HAND HE SAID THAT THE ONE WHO DOESNT CONSIDER A KAAFIR AS KAAFIR IS HIMSELF A KAAFIR. SO THOSE BARELWIS SAY THAT YAZEED WAS KAAFIR SHOULD PONDER OVER THE FATWA OF THEIR IMAM , BECAUE IF THEY CALL YAZEED A KAAFIR THEYARE INDIRECTLY MAKING TAKFEER OF THEIR IMAM.
قال ابن صلاح “والناس في يزيد ثلاث فرق : فرقة تحبه وتتولاّه ، وفرقة أخرى تسبه وتلعنه ، وفرقة متوسطة في ذلك لا تتولاّه ولا تلعنه ، وتسلك به سبيل سائر ملوك الإسلام وخلفائهم غير الراشدين في ذلك وشبهه ،وهذه الفرقة هي الصائبة ،”(أ ب كي مسايل اور ان كا حل 1-172 نقلا عن معارف السنن6-8)
Ibn Salah (R.A) mentions: “The people have divided in three groups with regards to Yazeed. One group loves him and (accepts him) as a leader. Another group criticises and curses him. (The third) group is moderate towards him. They do not (accept him) as a leader, nor do they curse him. They treat him (as they treat) all other kings and leaders (besides the khulafa rashideen and their likes).This group is on the correct part.”(Aap ke masaail aur unke hal 1/172 with reference to Ma’arifus sunan 6/8)
The reason for this stance is that many reports condemning Yazeed are weak, especially in view of the fact that many senior Sahabah took allegiance to Yazeed. Yazeeds love for the family of Husain (R.A) is also recorded in many narrations. Consider the following….
وقد كان عبد الله بن عمر بن الخطاب وجماعات أهل بيت النبوة ممن لم ينقض العهد، ولا بايع أحداً بعد بيعته ليزيد . كما قال الإمام أحمد : حدثنا إسماعيل بن علية، حدثني صخر بن جويرية، عن نافع . قال : لما خلع الناس يزيد بن معاوية جمع ابن عمر بنيه وأهله ثم تشهد ثم قال : أما بعد، فإنا بايعنا هذا الرجل على بيع الله ورسوله، وإني سمعت رسول الله يقول : (إن الغادر ينصب له لواء يوم القيامة يقال هذه غدرة فلان، وإن من أعظم الغدر إلا أن يكون الإشراك بالله، أن يبايع رجل رجلاً على بيع الله ورسوله ثم ينكث بيعته ) فلا يخلعن أحد منكم يزيد ولا يسرفن أحد منكم في هذا الأمر، فيكون الفيصل بيني وبينه . وقد رواه مسلم والترمذي من حديث صخر بن جويرية، وقال الترمذي : حسن صحيح . وقد رواه أبو الحسن علي بن محمد بن عبد الله بن أبي سيف المدائني : عن صخر بن جويرية، عن نافع، عن ابن عمر فذكر مثله”راجع البداية والنهاية/ج11/ص652.مركز البحوث.
Abdullah bin Umar (R.A) and groups from the household of Nabi (sallallahu alayhi wasallam) did not break their allegiance nor pledge to anyone else after pledging to Yazeed, as Imaam Ahmad narrates (with a chain) to Nafi who said : “When the people retreated from Yazeed bin Muawiyah, Ibn Umar (R.A)gathered his children and family and called out… “Verily we have pledged allegiance to this man on the pledge of Allah and his messenger, and verily I have heard Allah’s messenger say: “On the day of Qiyaamah, A flag will be erected for a person who deceives. It will be said: “This is the deception of a certain person. And verily the greatest deception besides associating partners to Allah is that a person pledges to another on the pledge of Allah and his messenger, and then breaks his pledge. None of you should retreat from Yazeed in this matter nor should you exceed any bounds. That will then be a decisive criterion between me and him.” Imaam Muslim and Tirmidhi also narrated this on the authority of Sakr bin Juwairiyya (R.A) and Imaam Tirmidhi has graded it as hasan and saheeh. Abul Hasan Ali bin Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Abi Saif Al Madaainy narrates (this incident) from Sakr bin Juwairiyya from Nafi from Ibn Umar (R.A). (Al Bidayah wan nihayyah 11/652 Markaz ul buhooth)
قال علي بن الحسين : دخلنا دمشق بعد أن شخصنا من الكوفة فإذا الناس مجتمعون بباب يزيد فأدخلت عليه وهو جالس على سرير وعنده الناس ساكتين من أهل الشام ومن أهل العراق والحجاز . وكنت قدام أهل بيتي فسلمت عليه فقال : أيكم علي بن الحسين ؟ فقلت : أنا فقلت : ادنه فدنوت ثم قال : ادنه فدنوت حتى على صدري على فراشه ثم قال : أما إنه لو أن أباك أتاني لوصلت رحمه وقضيت ما يلزمني من عنقه ولكن عجل عليهم ابن زياد قتله الله فقلت : يا أمير المؤمنين أصابتنا جفوة فقال : يذهب الله عنكم الجفوة . فقلت : يا أمير المؤمنين أموالنا قبضت فاكتب أن ترد علينا . فكتب لنا بردها وقال : أقيموا عندي فإني أقضي حوائجكم وأفعل بكم وأفعل فقلت : بل المدينة أحب إلي قال : قربي خير لكم قلت : إن أهل بيتي قد تفرقوا فنأتيهم فيجتمعون ويحمدون الله على هذه النعمة فجهزنا وأعطانا أكثر مما ذهب منا حتى الكسوة والجهاز وسرح معنا رسلا إلى المدينة وأمرنا أن ننزل حيث شئنا(مختصر تاريخ دمشق-1-3754 المكتبة الشاملة)
Ali bin Husain (R.A) (the son of Husain R.A) mentions: “We entered Damascus on our return from Kufa. Many people had gathered at the door of Yazeed. I was taken to him and (found him) seated on a bed. By his side there were people from Shaam, and Hijaaz who were all silent. I was at the head of my family (therefore) I saluted (first). Yazeed asked: “Who of you is Ali bin Husain?” I responded to him. He commanded that I be brought closer to him so much until my chest was just above his bed. Thereafter he said: “Know well, if your father came to me so that I could join ties with him and fulfil his rights (I would have gladly done so) but Ibn Ziyaad, may Allah’s curse be on him, was too fast.” I responded: “Oh Ameer ul mumineen, we are overtaken with dissension.” Yazeed replied: “May Allah remove this dissension.” I submitted: “Our wealth has been snatched. Make a note that it should be returned to us.” He immediately recorded it down. Thereafter Yazeed said: “Stay by me so that I can fulfil your needs and show kindness to you.” I answered that Madinah is much more beloved to me. Yazeed retorted: “Being close to me is better for you” I submitted: “My family is scattered. We would gather them so that they can be thankful to Allah for this bounty.” Thereafter, he equipped and provided for us more than was taken from us to such an extend that he also gave clothes and (other) equipment and sent with us messengers to Madinah. He also allowed that we stop wherever we desire.” (Mukhtasar tareekh Dimasq 1/3754 Al Makabah al shamillah)
فيروي البلاذري أن محمد بن علي بن أبي طالب – المعروف بابن الحنفية – دخل يوماً على يزيد بن معاوية بدمشق ليودعه بعد أن قضى عنده فترة من الوقت ، فقال له يزيد ، و كان له مكرماً : يا أبا القاسم ، إن كنت رأيت مني خُلُقاً تنكره نَزَعت عنه ، و أتيت الذي تُشير به علي ؟ فقال : والله لو رأيت منكراً ما وسعني إلاّ أن أنهاك عنه ، وأخبرك بالحق لله فيه ، لما أخذ الله على أهل العلم عن أن يبينوه للناس ولا يكتموه ، وما رأيت منك إلاّ خيراً .( أنساب الأشراف للبلاذري 5/17 المكتبة الشاملة)
Allamah Baladhry narrates that Muhammad bin Ali bin Abi Talib-famously known as Ibnul Hanafiyyah- once came to bid farewell to Yazeed when departing from Damascus after spending some time with him. Yazeed said to him (and he always honoured him): “Oh Abul Qasim, if you had seen any bad quality in me (inform me so that) I can reform. And I can practice on the advice you give me.” Ibnul Hanafiyyah responded: By the oath of Allah, if I saw any evil in you it would be incumbent on me to prohibit you and inform you of the truth for the pleasure of Allah because Allah has made it binding on the people of knowledge to speak the truth and not conceal it. However, I NEVER SAW ANY EVIL IN YOU. (Ansaabul ashraaf 5/17 Al Maktaba al shamilah)
In the above narrations, the brother of Husain (R.A), Ibnul Hanafiyyah (R.A), testifies that he never saw Yazeed perpetrating any evil. In another narration he denies that Yazeed ever drank wine, omitted prayers or exceeded the laws of the Quraan. Ibnul Hanafiyyah (R.A) also talks of Yazeed’s perpetuity on salaah, his love for good, his thirst for knowledge and attachment to the sunnah.
نقل الحافظ ابن كثير في البداية والنهاية (11: 654) أن عبد الله بن مطيع مشى هو وأصحابه إلى محمد بن علي بن أبي طالب ( المعروف بابن الحنفية ) فأرادوه على خلع يزيد ، فأبى عليهم ، فقال ابن مطيع : إن يزيد يشرب الخمر ، ويترك الصلاة ، ويتعدى حكم الكتاب . فقال لهم : ما رأيت منه ما تذكرون ، وقد حضرته ، وأقمت عنده ، فرأيته مواظبا على الصلاة ، متحريا للخير ، يسأل عن الفقه ، ملازما للسنة . قالوا : فإن ذلك كان منه تصنعا لك . فقال : وما الذي خاف مني أو رجا حتى يظهر إلى الخشوع ؟ أفأطلعكم على ما تذكرون من شرب الخمر ؟ فلئن كان أطلعكم على ذلك إنكم لشركاؤه ، وإن لم يكن أطلعكم فما يحل لكم أن تشهدوا بما لم تعلموا . قالوا : إنه عندنا لحق وإن لم نكن رأيناه . فقال لهم أبى الله ذلك على أهل الشهادة فقال : إِلَّا مَنْ شَهِدَ بِالْحَقِّ وَهُمْ يَعْلَمُونَ ( الزخرف : 86 ) ، ولست من أمركم في شيء . قالوا : فلعلك تكره أن يتولى الأمر غيرك ، فنحن نوليك أمرنا . قال : ما أستحل القتال على ما تريدونني عليه تابعا ولا متبوعا . قالوا ؟ فقد قاتلت مع أبيك ؟ قال : جيئوني بمثل أبي أقاتل على مثل ما قاتل عليه . فقالوا : فمر ابنيك ؟ أبا القاسم والقاسم بالقتال معنا . قال : لو أمرتهما قاتلت . قالوا : فقم معنا مقاما يحض الناس فيه على القتال . قال : سبحان الله . آمر الناس بما لا أفعله ولا أرضاه ؟ إذن ما نصحت لله في عباده . قالوا : إذن نكرهك . قال : إذن آمر الناس بتقوى الله ، وألا يرضوا المخلوق بسخط الخالق ( وخرج إلى مكة ) .
Hafidh Ibn Katheer has related in Al Bedayah wan nehayah (11/653) that Muhammad bin Mutee and his companions came to Muhammad bin Ali bin Abi Talib (famously known as Ibnul Hanifiyyah) and desired that he removes Yazeed (from the post of a leader). Ibnul Hanafiyyah blatantly refused. Ibnul Mutee remarked: “Verily Yazeed consumes wine, omits prayers and trespasses the laws of the Quran.” Ibnul Hanafiyyah responded: “I never found him to be how you mention. Instead I stayed by him and found him PUNCTUAL ON PRAYERS, PURSUING GOOD, ASKING MATTERS OF DEEN AND STEADFAST ON THE SUNNAH.” To this they said: “He did this only to impress you” Ibnul Hanafiyyah answered: “What was there for him to fear or have hope in me that he had to show so much humility? Should I inform you of the reality of your accusation that he used to drink wine? If I inform you, you (would realize) you are his partners. If I don’t inform you it would not be permissible for you to bear testimony on what you don’t know.” They said: “This news (of Yazeed’s evil) is true, even though we did not see him personally (carry out any of those evils).”Ibnul Hanafiyyah (R.A) responded: “Allah does not accept that from those bearing testimony.” Then he recited the verse ‘…except those who bear testimony to the truth knowingly.’ And said: “Therefore I have nothing to do with what you say.” Thereupon Ibn Mueet and his companions remarked: “Perhaps you dislike someone besides yourself to be the leader. We would make you our leader.” Ibnul Haniffiya replied: I do not regard it permissible for me to fight for what you want from me-not as a leader nor as a follower.” “But you fought with your father” They interjected. “Bring me the likes of my father so I can fight for what he fought.” Responded Yazeed. “So command your sons Abal Qasim and Qasim to fight with us.” They instructed. Yazeed responded: “If I were to command them I should fight myself.” They said: “At least support us so that people can be encouraged to fight.” Ibnul Hanafiyyah shouted: “Subhanallah! Should I command people with something I won’t do and I am not even pleased with? In that case I won’t be faithful to Allah with regards to His servants.” “In that case we’ll force you.” They threatened. Yazeed retorted “In that case I’ll command people to fear Allah and not please the creation at the cost of the anger of the Creator.” And then he left for Makkah.
These narrations show the love and respect Yazeed had for the Ahl al-bait. The family of Husain (R.A) are the ones that exonerated Yazeed from the evil’s that were attributed to him.
Yazeed was also outstanding in his knowledge. Hazrat Ibn Abbas (R.A) praised him for this.
روى المدائني أن ابن عباس وفد إلى معاوية بعد وفاة الحسن بن علي ، فدخل يزيد على ابن عباس وجلس منه مجلس المعزي ، فلما نهض يزيد من عنده قال ابن عباس : إذا ذهب بنو حرب ذهب علماء الناس ( ابن كثير 11: 642 مركز البحوث) .
Madaeeny (R.A) relates that Ibn Abbaas (R.A) came to Muawiyyah (R.A) after the demise of Hasan bin Ali (R.A). Thereafter Yazeed entered and sat next to Ibn Abbaas (R.A) to console him. When Yazeed got up, Ibn Abbaas remarked: “When the Banu Harb departs, the Ulama of the people depart.” (Ibn Katheer 11/642 Markazul buhooth)
Hazrat Laith used to give him the title of ‘Amir al Mumineen’
قال القاضي أبو بكر بن العربي: “فإن قيل: كان يزيد خماراً. قلنا: لا يحل إلا بشاهدين، فمن شهد بذلك عليه؟ بل شهد العدول بعدالته: فروى يحيى بن بكير عن الليث بن سعد، قال الليث: (توفي أمير المؤمنين يزيد في تاريخ كذا) فسماه الليث ( أمير المؤمنين) بعد ذهاب ملكهم وانقراض دولتهم، ولولا كونه عنده كذلك ماقال إلا (توفي يزيد)” راجع: ابن العربي: العواصم من القواصم 153 دار الكتب العلمية .
Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabi (R.A) says: “If it is objected that Yazeed was addicted to wine, we’ll say: This is not accepted unless you bring two witnesses, so who would bear witness for you? In contrast, liable people bore testimony to Yazeeds good reputation.
Yahyah bin Bukair relates that Laith (R.A) used to say: “Amir al-Mumineen Yazeed passed away on such a date…” So he called Yazeed ‘Amir al-Mumineen’ years after their rule and dominance. Had Yazeed not deserved this title according to Laith, he would merely say ‘Yazeed died’.”(Al Awaasim minal qawaasim 153 Darul kutubul ilmiyyah)
It is also not authentically proven that Yazeed had any thing to do with the martyrdom of Husain (R.A)
قال ابن الصلاح : ” لم يصح عندنا أنه أمر بقتله (الخلاصة في بيان رأي شيخ الإسلام ابن تيمية في الرافضة – ج 1 / ص 151 المكتبة الشاملة)
Ibn Salaah (R.A) says: “It is not authentic according to us that (Yazeed) commanded that Husain (R.A) be martyred.” (Al Khulaasa fi bayaani rayi Sheikil Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah fir Rafidha 1/151 Al Maktabah as shamillah)
The last words uttered by Yazeed were
اللهم لا تؤاخذني بما لم احبه، ولم ارده، واحكم بيني و بين عبدالله بن زياد
“Oh Allah do not take me to task for what I don’t like, and I didn’t intend (i.e. the martyrdom of Husain (R.A), and judge between me and Abdullah bin Ziyaad.”
Thereafter he said
أمنت بالله العظيم
“I belief in Allah, the Glorious”
And with this he passed away. (Al Bidaya wan nihayah 11/659 Markaz ul buhooth)
This proves his death with Imaan.
In view of the above mentioned narrations, the Ulama of Deoband have adopted a cautious view and refrained from condemning Yazeed. The general principle of Sharee’ah is to hold a good opinion about a fellow Muslim brother and also to invoke Allahs mercy for Muslims in general, SO MAY ALLAH HAVE MERCY ON HIM.
Companions who accepted Nomination/Khilafate of Yazeed Bin Mauwiyah
I do not know of others, but I have been in search of the names of the people who took baite of Yazeed Bin Mauwiyah as Khalif. The list of names that I came across was full of blessed Companions of RasoolAllah[saw], it is very important to present authentic history of Islam to Muslims, as the distinction between what is part of History and what is part of faith has been erradicated by people of Bidah [innovation]. May Allah[swt] guide us all to right path, for it He alone who can guide.[ameen]
1. Ashaab-e-Ashra Mubashra [ who were given glad tiding og Jannah in their life time]
Hz. Saad Bin Abi Waqaas[ra], he is related to RasoolAllah[saw] as maternal Uncle from his mother side, during Uhad, When Hz. Saad bin Abi Waqaas[ra] was firing arrow towards Kufaar while protecting RasoolAllah[saw], He[saw] said ” Keep firing, may my[saw] father and mother be sacrified for you, he is my maternal uncle, does any one has a uncle like him [Saad bin Abi Waqaas]”
Hz. Saeed Bin Zaid[ra], who accepted Islam very early was married to Hz. Fatima[ra] sister of Ameerul Momineen Hz. Umar Al-Farooq[ra], according to one version of events Hz. Umar [ra] accepted Islam after listening to Surah from Quran in his home.
2. Ashab-e-Badr [ Companions who participated in battle at Badr]
Hz. Abu Ayub Khalid Bin Zaid Ansari[ra] was one of the great companion of RasoolAllah[saw] and was blessed with hosting RasoolAllah[saw] for few days at his home upon his[saw] arrival from Makkah to Medina. Hz. Abu Ayub Khalid Bin Zaid Ansari[ra] participated in all the battles during the life time of RasoolAllah[saw]. He also participated in invasion of Medina-e-Kisra [ city of cesar] Constantinople [ Kustuntunnia] in 49 AH at the age of more than 80 years. Other companions who participated in this invasion were Hz. Abdullah Bin Umar, Hz. Abdullah Bin Abbas, Hz. Abdullah Bin Zubair, Hz. Hussein Bin Ali, This invasion was lead by Yazeed Bin Mauwiyah.
Abu Asyed Malik[ra] He particpated in all the battles during the life time of rasoolAllah and carried the flag of his tribe during battle for Makkah, he died in 60AH during the Khilafate of Yazeed Bin Mauwiyah, it is also recorded that he was the last of companions of Badr to die.
Abu Barda Hani[ra] Was present at Bait-e-Aqba, fought in every battle during the life time of RasoolAllah[saw] and carried the flag of his tribe Bani Harith during the battle of Makkah, he died in 53 AH, he accept the nomination of Yazeed Bin Mauwiyah to Khilafate.
Abu Abdullah Ansari[ra] his name was Jabir bin Ateeq, fought during the battle of Badr and carried the flag of his tribe during the battle of Makkah, some has recorded his year of death as 61AH some as 71AH.
Abu Lababah Ansari[ra] his name was Bashir, he was present at Bait-e-Aqba, he went to fight at Badr and rode on the same camel with RasoolAllah[saw], half way RasoolAllah[saw] sent him back as his assistant, he recieved share of war booty from Badr as other participants. He carried the flag in the battle for Makkah. His actual year of death is not known historians agree he died after 50 Ah and accepted Nomination of Yazeed Bin Mauwiyah to Khilafate.
Abu Namla Ansari[ra] Was present in Battle of Badr with his father Maaz Bin Zarar Ansari[ra], participated in all the battles and died during the khilafate of Abdul Malik Bin Marwan[ra].
Arkam Bin Alarkam Bin Abd Manaaf Bin Asad Makhzomi[ra] He was among the very first [ Sabaqoon Wal Awaloon] to accept Islam, he was the 7th person. RasoolAllah[saw] you get to gather at his home during early times of Nabuate, he faought at badr. He died in 55AH and accepted Nomination of Yazeed Bin Mauwiyah to Khilafate.
Jabir Bin Abdullah ansari[ra] was son of a companion, his father was among the thirteen who accepted shahadah at Badr. At time of Badr he was 16/17 yrs old and accompanied his father, he was also present at Bait-e-Aqba with is father. He fought in all the battles during the life time of RasoolAllah[saw] and carried the flag of his tribe during battle for Makkah. He died during the khilafate of Yazeed Bin Mauwiyah.
Harith Bin Al Nauman Bin Bafi Al Ansari[ra] He was at Badr and also was among few who stood ground at Hunaian, he died in 52 AH accepted Nomination of Yazeed Bin Mauwiyah to Khilafate.
Rabia Bin Kaab[ra] He was from Ashab-e-Safa and alway traveled with RasoolAllah[saw] and never parted from him[saw]. He died in 63 AH during the khilafate of Yazeed Bin Mauwiyah.
Zaid Bin Sahal Abu Talha Ansari[ra] was at Bait-e-Aqba, participate at Badr, Killed 20 Kufar at Hunain with his arrows, after death of RasoolAllah[saw] he went to live in Syria. He was appointed by Ameeerul Momineen Hz. Umar Al-Farooq [ra] to over look the process of election of Khilafate after his death and if dispute arises to kill every one involved. He lived for over 40 yrs after the death of rasoolAllah[saw]. He died in 52 AH accepted Nomination of Yazeed Bin Mauwiyah to Khilafate.
Saib Bin Khalid[ra]
Shadad Bin Awas[ra]
Atbaan Bin Malik[ra]
Umaru Bin Awaf[ra]
Kaab Bin Umaru[ra]
Naeem Bin Umaru Bin Rafia[ra]
Ashab-e-Baite-e-Rizwan [Companions who took pledge under the tree and Allah was happy with them]
Abu Sagalba Bin Jurham
Abu Zama Bin Al Bawi
Abu Sabeen Al Jaheni
Thabit bin Zahak Ansari
Salma Bin Umaru
Aad Bin Salba
Abdullah Bin Abi Hadrad
Abdullah Bin Umar Al-Farooq
Abdullah Bin Maghfil
Alqama Bin Khalid Bin Abu Abdullah
Umaru Bin Al-Khatab Ansari
Mughira bin Shaba
Fadla Bin Abeed ul Saree
May Allah[swt] be [pleased with them all.